Meteorologia - Cursos, Livros e Manuais (online)

Tópico em 'Aprendizagem e Formação' iniciado por Vince 18 Jun 2007 às 10:56.

  1. Vince

    Vince
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    Furacão

    Registo:
    23 Jan 2007
    Mensagens:
    10,624
    Local:
    Braga

    MetEd - Meteorology Education & Training


    A maioria dos modulos são em inglês, mas também existem alguns em espanhol.
    Os modulos organizam-se nestes tópicos:

    # Aviation Weather
    # Climate
    # Coastal Weather
    # Convective Weather
    # Emergency Mgmnt
    # Fire Weather
    # Fog and Low Stratus
    # Hurricanes/Tropical
    # Hydrology/Flooding
    # Marine Met/Oceans
    # Mesoscale Met
    # Mountain Met
    # NWP (Modeling)
    # QPF (Precipitation)
    # Radar Meteorology
    # Satellite Meteorology
    # Space Weather
    # Winter Weather
    # Other

    Módulos:

    A Convective Storm Matrix: Buoyancy/Shear Dependencies
    A Social Science Perspective on Flood Events
    Advances in Microwave Remote Sensing: Ocean Wind Speed and Direction
    An Introduction to Ensemble Streamflow Prediction
    An Introduction to POES Data and Products
    An Introduction to the EUMETSAT Polar System
    An MCS Matrix
    Anticipating Convective Storm Structure and Evolution
    Anticipating Hazardous Weather and Community Risk
    Applying Diagnostic and Forecast Tools: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus
    Assessing Climatology in Fog/Stratus Forecasting
    Australian Warm-season Severe Thunderstorm Case Studies
    Barrier Jet Forecasting: Eastern Foothills and High Plains of Colorado, 17-20 March 2003
    Basic Terminal Forecast Strategies
    Blowing Snow: Baker Lake, Nunavut, Canada 04-10 February 2003
    Boundary Detection and Convection Initiation
    CAMEO/HYSPLIT
    Canadian EPV Charts
    Case Study: A New England Fog Event
    Case Study: A Northern Plains Cold-Air Outbreak Event
    Challenges of Forecasting in the West
    Coastally Trapped Wind Reversals
    Cold Air Damming
    COMAP Symposium on Numerical Weather Prediction: Presentation Archive
    Community Hurricane Preparedness
    Conceptual Models of Tropical Waves
    Creating a Local Climate Product Using Composite Analysis
    Customer Impacts: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus
    Definition of the Mesoscale
    Deformation Zone Analysis
    Determining Visibility
    Diagnosing and Forecasting Extratropical Transition: A Case Exercise on Hurricane Michael
    Dispersion Basics
    Dust Enhancement Techniques Using MODIS and SeaWiFS
    Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette
    Dynamically Forced Fog
    Dynamics & Microphysics of Cool-Season Orographic Storms
    Ensemble Forecasting Explained
    Ensemble Prediction System Matrix: Characteristics of Operational Ensemble Prediction Systems (EPS)
    ENSO and Beyond
    Extratropical Cyclones
    Feature Identification Exercises: Clouds, Snow, and Ice Using MODIS
    Feature Identification Using Environmental Satellites
    Fire Weather
    Flash Flood Processes
    Flood Frequency Analysis
    Flow Interaction with Topography
    Fog and Stratus Forecast Approaches
    Forecast Process
    Forecasting Aviation Icing: Icing Type and Severity
    Forecasting Dust Storms
    Forecasting Radiation Fog
    FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC
    Freezing and Melting, Precipitation Type, and Numerical Weather Prediction
    From mm to cm... Study of snow/liquid water ratios in Quebec
    Gap Winds
    Heavy Banded Snow
    Heavy Precipitation and Flash Flooding
    How Mesoscale Models Work
    How Models Produce Precipitation & Clouds
    Hurricane Strike!™
    Hurricanes Canadian Style: Extratropical Transition
    Hydrology for the Meteorologist: Basic Hydrology for Headwater Forecasting
    Hydrology for the Meteorologist: The Headwater Forecast Process
    Icing Assessment Using Observations and Pilot Reports
    Icing Assessment Using Soundings and Wind Profiles
    Imaging with NPOESS VIIRS: A Convergence of Technologies and Experience
    Impact of Model Structure & Dynamics
    In-depth Physics Lessons
    Influence of Model Physics on NWP Forecasts
    Intelligent Use of Model-Derived Products
    Introduction to Ensemble Prediction
    Introduction to Fire Behavior: Influences of Topography, Fuels, and Weather on Fire Ignition and Spread
    Introduction to Ocean Tides
    Inverted Troughs and Their Associated Precipitation Regimes
    Inverted Troughs Case Exercise
    Isentropic Analysis
    Jet Streak Circulations
    Landfalling Fronts and Cyclones
    Lectures on Radar Applications in Mesoscale Meteorology
    Local Influences on Fog and Low Stratus
    Low-Level Coastal Jets
    Marine Meteorology
    Marine Wave Model Matrix
    Mesoscale Aspects of Winter Weather Forecasting Topics
    Mesoscale Banded Precipitation
    Mesoscale Convective Systems: Squall Lines and Bow Echoes
    Mesoscale Meteorology: A Primer (A Module Collection)
    Microwave Remote Sensing Resources
    Microwave Remote Sensing: Clouds, Precipitation, and Water Vapor
    Microwave Remote Sensing: Overview
    Model Fundamentals
    Mountain Waves and Downslope Winds
    NexSat: Preparing Users for the NPOESS/VIIRS Era
    NPOESS: The Next Generation Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite Program
    Numerical Weather Prediction
    Ocean Effect Snow: New England Snow Storm, 14 January 1999
    Operational Models Matrix: Characteristics of Operational NWP Models
    Operational Satellite Derived Tropical Rainfall Potential (TRaP)
    PBL in Complex Terrain - Part 1
    PBL in Complex Terrain - Part 2
    Physics of the Aurora: Earth Systems
    Polar Lows Ungava Bay 01 December 2000
    Polar Satellite Products for the Operational Forecaster (POES) Module 1: POES Introduction
    Polar Satellite Products for the Operational Forecaster (POES) Module 2: Microwave Products and Applications
    Polar Satellite Products for the Operational Forecaster (POES) Module 3: Case Studies
    Polar Satellite Products for the Operational Forecaster (POES) Module 4: Soundings
    Polar Satellite Products for the Operational Forecaster: Microwave Analysis of Tropical Cyclones
    Precipitation Type: New Brunswick, 01-03 February 2003
    Predicting Supercell Motion Using Hodograph Techniques
    Principles of Convection I: Buoyancy and CAPE
    Principles of Convection II: Using Hodographs
    Principles of Convection III: Shear and Convective Storms
    Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Overview
    Radiation Fog
    Rain Gauges: Are They Really Ground Truth?
    Remote Sensing of Land, Oceans, and Atmosphere with MODIS
    Remote Sensing of Ocean Wind Speed and Direction: An Introduction to Scatterometry
    Remote Sensing Using Satellites
    Review of GOES IR Imagery Including Winter and Icing Applications
    Rip Currents: Forecasting
    Rip Currents: Nearshore Fundamentals
    Rip Currents: NWS Mission and Partnerships
    River Forecasting Case Study
    River Ice Processes
    Runoff Processes
    Satellite Meteorology: Case Studies Using GOES Imager Data
    Satellite Meteorology: GOES Channel Selection
    Satellite Meteorology: Introduction to Using the GOES Sounder
    Satellite Meteorology: Remote Sensing Using the New GOES Imager
    Satellite Meteorology: Using the GOES Sounder
    Seasonal Forecast Problems Refresher Training
    Severe Convection II: Mesoscale Convective Systems
    Shallow Water Waves
    Should Synopticians Worry About Climate?
    Skew-T Mastery
    Slantwise Convection Case Exercise
    Slantwise Convection: An Operational Approach
    Snowmelt Processes
    Space Weather Basics
    Space Weather: Welcome, SEC
    Streamflow Routing
    Supporting Military Emergency Response During Hazardous Releases
    Synoptic Weather Considerations: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus
    Ten Common NWP Misconceptions
    The Balancing Act of Geostrophic Adjustment
    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Cycle
    The Impact of Weather on Air Traffic Management
    The Madden-Julian Oscillation Life Cycle
    The NCEP NAM WRF Model (Full version)
    The NCEP NAM WRF Model (Short version)
    The NPOESS Science Advisory Team
    The NPP Data Exchange Toolkit (NEXT)
    The Role of the MJO in Oceanic and Atmospheric Variability
    The Science of Global Climate Change and Human Influences
    The SPoRT Center – Infusing NASA Technology Into NWS WFO
    The Use and Misuse of Conditional Symmetric Instability
    Thermally-forced Circulation I: Sea Breezes
    Thermally-forced Circulation II: Mountain/Valley Breezes
    Top Ten Misconceptions about NWP Models: Teletraining Archive
    Topics in Lake Effect Snow Forecasting
    Topics in Polar Low Forecasting
    Topics in Precipitation Type Forecasting
    Trainer Materials for the Symposium on Numerical Weather Prediction
    Understanding Data Assimilation: How Models Create Their Initial Conditions
    Understanding Marine Customers
    Understanding the Hydrologic Cycle
    Unit Hydrograph Theory
    Urban Flooding: It Can Happen in a Flash!
    Using the WRF Mesoscale Model
    Visible and Infrared Dust Detection Techniques
    Vorticity Maxima and Comma Patterns
    Vorticity Minima and Anticomma Patterns
    Watersheds: Connecting Weather to the Environment
    Wave Life Cycle I: Generation
    Wave Life Cycle II: Propagation & Dispersion
    Wave Types and Characteristics
    West Coast Fog
    What Can You Expect From the Eta-12?
    Winds in the Marine Boundary Layer: A Forecaster's Guide
    Workshop on Doppler Radar Interpretation
    Writing Effective TAFs


    Link:
    http://www.meted.ucar.edu/ (requer registo, mas é gratuito)
     
  2. Vince

    Vince
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    Furacão

    Registo:
    23 Jan 2007
    Mensagens:
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    Local:
    Braga
    THE ULTIMATE WEATHER EDUCATION WEBSITE

    WEATHER FORECASTING PHILOSOPHY

    1. BEING YOUR OWN FORECASTER
    2. ADDING MEANING TO A FORECAST
    3. PEOPLE AND WEATHER FORECASTING
    4. FORECASTING MISCONCEPTIONS
    5. FORECASTING MISTAKES


    BASIC METEOROLOGY TOPICS

    Principle Topics
    1. IMPORTANT CONVERSIONS
    2. Z TIME
    3. ISOPLETHS
    4. SURFACE AND UPPER AIR OBSERVATIONS
    5. IMPORTANT METEOROLOGICAL EQUATIONS
    6. HIGH AND LOW PRESSURE TYPES

    Additional Topics
    1. BROADCAST METEOROLOGY TERMINOLOGY
    2. AIR MASS CLASSIFICATION
    3. TRANSPORTATION HAZARDS
    4. SURFACE STATION PLOT INTERPRETATION
    5. FORECASTING CLOUDS
    6. THE PLANETARY BOUNDARY LAYER
    7. ORDER OF LINKS IN WEATHER PREDICTION BOOK


    WEATHER ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION CHARTS

    THE SURFACE CHART
    THE 850 MB CHART
    THE 700 MB CHART
    THE 500 MB CHART
    THE 300/200 MB CHART
    CHART QUIZ

    WEATHER FORECAST MODELS

    HABY'S FORECAST MODEL INTERPETATION GUIDE
    UNISYS FORECAST MODEL INTERPETATION GUIDE
    SYNOPTIC SCALE MODEL LIMITATIONS
    THE PITFALLS OF MOS DATA
    DECODING FOUS DATA
    DECODING METAR DATA
    DECODING NGM MOS DATA
    DECODING AVN MOS DATA
    DECODING ETA MOS DATA
    DECODING MRF MOS DATA
    MODEL BIASES

    WEATHER ANALYSIS
    COMMON ANALYSIS CHARTS
    WEATHER ANALYSIS / FORECASTING TIPS


    BECOMING A GREAT FORECASTER

    INTRODUCTION TO MODEL MOS
    PART 1: ADVECTION ALOFT AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE
    PART 2: UPSTREAM CONDITIONS
    PART 3: STRONG RADIATIONAL COOLING
    PART 4: TIMING A FRONT
    PART 5: OCEAN AND LAKE INFLUENCE
    PART 6: BEWARE THE DARN CLOUDS
    PART 7: DON'T FRET OVER LOW POP AND LOW QPF
    PART 8: TIMING PRECIPITATION
    PART 9: TAKING MODEL CONSENSUS
    PART 10: SYNTHESIS


    POPULAR HABY HINTS

    1. UNDERSTANDING LATENT HEAT
    2. THE SIMPLIFIED OMEGA EQUATION (THERMAL ADVECTION TERM)
    3. THE SIMPLIFIED OMEGA EQUATION (VORTICITY ADVECTION TERM)
    4. 10 POPULAR WEBSITES FOR REALTIME U.S. WEATHER DATA
    5. COLD AIR DAMMING EXAMPLE
    6. FORECASTING ICING ON ROADS
    7. THE 540 LINE AND PRECIPITATION TYPE
    8. WARMING AND COOLING OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE
    9. USEFULNESS AND USELESSNESS OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY
    10. CONVECTIVE INSTABILITY DEFINITION AND EXAMPLE
    11. PRECIPITATION EFFECT ON WET-BULBING OUT PROCESS
    12. INTERPRETATION OF AVERAGE HIGH AND LOW TEMPERATURE
    13. SEVERE WEATHER VERSUS FRONTAL TYPE
    14. VEERING AND BACKING WIND DEFINED
    15. THE INVERSION
    16. CAN IT BE TOO COLD TO SNOW?
    17. WHAT CAUSES THUNDERSNOW?
    18. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ICE FOG AND FREEZING FOG?
    19. THE SOIL MOISTURE'S IMPACT ON WEATHER PREDICTION
    20. NORTHERN HEMISPHERE MID-LATITUDE SEASONS
    21. THE RATE OF A SNOWFLAKE MELTING AS IT FALLS
    22. CONVERSIONS USING THE DOMINANT TEMPERATURE SCALES
    23. DEFINING A "VORT MAX" AND A "VORT LOBE"
    24. KNOTS, PLUS OTHER WIND INFORMATION
    25. WHAT CAUSES GIANT SNOWFLAKES?
    26. WHAT IS A "NEGATIVELY TILTED TROUGH"?
    27. WAA VS. LOCAL HEATING ON THE 850 MB FORECAST MODELS
    28. USING PERCENTAGES IN FORECASTS
    29. WIDESPREAD VERSUS WIDELY SCATTERED
    30. CLOUD COVERAGE METHODS
    31. EXPLAINING DEWPOINT AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY TO THE PUBLIC
    32. THE EFFECT OF VORTICITY ADVECTION ON HEIGHT CHANGE
    33. TYPES OF ICE TO SCRAPE OFF THE CAR
    34. THE LEVEL IN THE TROPOSPHERE WITH THE GREATEST HEIGHT FALLS
    35. COMPARING THE DENSITY OF AIR TO WATER
    36. SUNBURN / TANNING MYTHS EXPOSED
    37. INTERPRETATION OF UVV ON SYNOPTIC MODELS
    38. OPERATIONAL INTERPRETATION OF 500 MB DPVA
    39. RADAR CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERCELLS
    40. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ACCURACY AND PRECISION?
    41. WHAT ARE ANOMALOUS PROPAGATION AND FALSE ECHOS?
    42. JET STREAK WIND AND JET STREAK MOVEMENT
    43. FORECASTING HIGHS AND LOWS USING MOS
    44. FORECASTING SURFACE HIGH USING 850-mb TEMP
    45. THE TOP 5 REASONS POLAR AREAS ARE COLD
    46. WEATHER AND BASEBALL FLIGHT
    47. INSIDE RH AS A FUNCTION OF OUTSIDE WEATHER
    48. TEXAS DRYLINE PROPAGATION ON MODELS
    49. REASONS FOR UNSTABLE LIFTED INDEX
    50. LOCATING A FRONTAL BOUNDARY

    THERMODYNAMICS AND FORECASTING

    1. INGREDIENTS FOR THUNDERSTORMS AND SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS
    2. SHEAR AND THUNDERSTORM TYPE
    3. WIND SHEAR AND SUPERCELLS
    4. EVALUATING TROPOSPHERIC MOISTURE
    5. APPLYING TROPOSPHERIC MOISTURE TO FORECASTING
    6. WHY IS MOIST AIR LESS DENSE THAN DRY AIR AT SAME TEMP?
    7. WHY THE MALR IS NOT A CONSTANT
    8. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE LCL AND CCL
    9. POTENTIAL TEMPERATURE AND THETA-E
    10. NEGATIVE BOUYANCY AND THE CAP ON SKEW-T
    11. THE EL AND MPL
    12. OPERATIONAL USES OF THE LAYER SLICE METHOD
    13. ELEVATED CONVECTION
    14. PREDICTING HAIL WITH THE SKEW-T
    15. EXACT LOCATION OF THUNDERSTORM DEVELOPMENT


    INFORMATION ON FORECASTING THE FOLLOWING TOPICS

    DEW
    FROST
    RADIATION
    FOG
    VIRGA
    HAIL
    THUNDERSNOW
    FLASH FLOODING
    LIGHTNING
    ICING
    SLEET
    FREEZING
    RAIN
    WINTER WX
    DERECHO
    HEAT BURST
    OROGRAPHICS
    WHITE X-MAS
    DROUGHT
    SMOG
    ISENTROPIC LIFT
    COL
    THE CAP
    700 MB CAP
    ADVECTION FOG
    TOPOGRAPHIC LIFT


    UNIQUE PROCESSES AND DEFINITIONS

    DIFFERENTIAL ADVECTION
    SQUALL LINE
    HOOK ECHO
    THERMAL TROUGH
    SHORTWAVE
    DIG AND DEEPEN
    ISOTHERMAL LAYER
    UVV MAX
    POLAR VORTEX
    INVERTED TROUGH
    UPPER LEVEL LOW
    SUPERADIABATIC
    MOISTURE TONGUE
    GRAVITY WAVE
    VERTICAL TILT
    BOMBOGENESIS
    CONVECTIVE INSTABILITY
    VORT MAX / LOBE
    COLD AIR FUNNEL
    DRYLINE BULGE
    THERMAL LOW
    CHINOOK
    THE BRIGHT BAND
    DECOUPLING


    Link:
    http://www.theweatherprediction.com/
     
  3. rossby

    rossby
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    Cumulus

    Registo:
    10 Mar 2007
    Mensagens:
    158
    Local:
    Ponta Delgada - São Miguel
    Re: Cursos online e gratuitos

    BOA :thumbsup:

    Este aqui não precisa de registo:

    http://www.eumetcal.org.uk/college/trainmat.htm


    * umetcal modules
    + Polar lows
    + Rapid cyclogenesis
    + Forecast Verification
    + Cyclogenesis in the Mediterranean

    * Euromet

    + Satellite Meteorology
    + Numerical wheather prediction

    * EUMeTrain
    *
    + SatManu
    + Case studies
    + EPS guide

    * MetOffice
    *
    + Auto observation weather codes
    + Interpreting water vapour imagery
    + Sandstorm

    * COMET
    *
    + MetEd modules listing

    * EUMETSAT
    *
    + Tropical Cyclones (ASMET4)
    + Fog detection and monitoring by Meteosat-8
    + Transfer topics
    + Scatter plots and point clouds
    + Introduction to Meteosat 8
    + Solar Channels
    + Water vapour channels
     
  4. Vince

    Vince
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    Furacão

    Registo:
    23 Jan 2007
    Mensagens:
    10,624
    Local:
    Braga
    Re: Como se formam os fenómenos meteorológicos

    METEOROLOGIA SINÓTICA
    UNIVERSIDADE DE SÃO PAULO
    INSTITUTO DE ASTRONOMIA, GEOFÍSICA E CIÊNCIAS ATMOSFÉRICAS
    DEPARTAMENTO DE CIÊNCIAS ATMOSFÉRICAS


    1. O QUE É METEOROLOGIA SINÓTICA ?
    2. ESTRUTURA GERAL DA ATMOSFERA
    3. CLIMATOLOGIA DA TROPOSFERA DA AMÉRICA DO SUL
    4. O CLIMA DO BRASIL
    5. TIPOS DE NUVENS E SUA RELAÇÃO COM O QUADRO SINÓTICO
    6. REVISÃO DE CONCEITOS DA TEORIA QUASE-GEOSTRÓFICA
    7. MODELOS CONCEITUAIS DE SISTEMAS DE PRECIPITAÇÃO
    8. ANÁLISE DA ESTABILIDADE
    9. FRENTES E FRONTOGÊNESE
    10. CICLONES E CICLOGÊNESE
    11. NEVOEIRO
    12. GEADAS
    13. CONVECÇÃO AMAZÔNICA E ALTA DA BOLÍVIA
    14. A ZONA DE CONVERGÊNCIA DO ATLÂNTICO SUL
    15. ZONA DE CONVERGÊNCIA INTERTROPICAL
    16. ONDAS DE LESTE
    17. BRISA MARÍTIMA/TERRESTRE E VALE/MONTANHA
    18. COMPLEXOS CONVECTIVOS DE MESOESCALA
    19. LINHAS DE INSTABILIDADE
    20. BLOQUEIOS

    http://www.master.iag.usp.br/ensino/Sinotica/INDICE/INDICE.HTML

    ----------------

    Fotointerpretação
    Esta página tem a função de auxiliar o usuário a interpretar e reconhecer algumas formações na atmosfera que são detectadas pelo satélite.

    Latitudes Médias
    Cristas
    Cavados
    Centros de Vorticidade
    Correntes de Jato
    Ciclones Extratropicais
    Frentes
    Massas de Ar

    Sistemas Tropicais
    ZCIT
    Ciclones Tropicais
    Correntes de Jato Subtropicais
    Alta da Bolívia

    Sistemas de Mesoescala
    Linhas de Instabilidade
    CCMs

    http://www.master.iag.usp.br/ensino/Sinotica/INDICE/INDICE.HTML


    -------------

    METEOROLOGIA POR SATELITE

    1. Investigacao de nuvens por satelite
    2. Obtencao de ventos e sua relacao com os sistemas dinamicos
    3. Sistemas de mesoescala


    http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/gem/met__satelite.htm

    -------------
     
  5. Vince

    Vince
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    Furacão

    Registo:
    23 Jan 2007
    Mensagens:
    10,624
    Local:
    Braga
    Re: Como se formam os fenómenos meteorológicos

    Meteorologia Básica - Notas de Aula
    Prof. Alice Marlene Grimm

    1) INTRODUÇÃO À METEOROLOGIA

    QUE É METEOROLOGIA ?
    A ATMOSFERA

    2) RADIAÇÃO SOLAR E TERRESTRE. BALANÇO DE CALOR.

    MOVIMENTOS DA TERRA, ESTAÇÕES.
    RADIAÇÃO ELETROMAGÉTICA
    ABSORÇÃO E EMISSÃO DE RADIAÇÃO POR MOLÉCULAS
    DESCRIÇÃO QUANTITATIVA DA RADIAÇÃO
    LEIS DE RADIAÇÃO (PARA CORPOS NEGROS)
    DISTRIBUIÇÃO DA RADIAÇÃO
    RADIAÇÃO SOLAR INCIDENTE
    RADIAÇÃO TERRESTRE
    MECANISMOS DE TRANSFERÊNCIA DE CALOR
    BALANÇO GLOBAL DE CALOR
    BALANÇO DE CALOR LATITUDINAL
    MEDIDA DE RADIAÇÃO

    3) TEMPERATURA

    CALOR E TEMPERATURA
    ESCALAS DE TEMPERATURAS
    MEDIDA DA TEMPERATURA
    ÍNDICES DE DESCONFORTO HUMANO
    CONTROLES DA TEMPERATURA
    DISTRIBUIÇÃO GLOBAL DE TEMPERATURAS

    4) PRESSÃO ATMOSFÉRICA

    DEFINIÇÃO
    A LEI DOS GASES IDEAIS
    VARIAÇÃO COM A ALTITUDE
    VARIAÇÕES HORIZONTAIS
    INFLUÊNCIA DA TEMPERATURA E DO VAPOR D’ÁGUA
    DIVERGÊNCIA E CONVERGÊNCIA ALTAS E BAIXAS
    MEDIDAS DE PRESSÃO ATMOSFÉRICA

    5) UMIDADE, CONDENSAÇÃO E ESTABILIDADE ATMOSFÉRICA

    O CICLO HIDROLÓGICO
    MUDANÇAS DE ESTADO
    UMIDADE
    PRESSÃO DE VAPOR, UMIDADE ABSOLUTA, RAZÃO DE MISTURA
    SATURAÇÃO
    UMIDADE RELATIVA PROBLEMAS
    TEMPERATURA VIRTUAL E A LEI DOS GASES IDEAIS PARA O AR ÚMIDO
    PROBLEMA
    MEDIDAS DE UMIDADE
    VARIAÇÕES ADIABÁTICAS DE TEMPERATURA
    A PRIMEIRA LEI DA TERMODINÂMICA
    PROCESSOS ADIABÁTICOS
    TEMPERATURA POTENCIAL ESTABILIDADE
    DETERMINAÇÃO DA ESTABILIDADE
    INVERSÕES DE TEMPERATURA E POLUIÇÃO DO AR
    VARIAÇÕES DE ESTABILIDADE LEVANTAMENTO FORÇADO

    6) CONDENSAÇÃO, NUVENS E PRECIPITAÇÃO

    PROCESSOS DE SATURAÇÃO EM BAIXOS NÍVEIS
    ORVALHO E GEADA
    NEVOEIRO NUVENS
    FORMAÇÃO DE NUVENS
    CLASSIFICAÇÃO DE NUVENS FORMAÇÃO DE PRECIPITAÇÃO
    O PROCESSO DE BERGERON
    PROCESSO DE COLISÃO - COALESCÊNCIA MEDIDAS DE PRECIPITAÇÃO

    7) O VENTO

    FORÇAS QUE AFETAM O VENTO
    FORÇA DE GRADIENTE DE PRESSÃO
    FORÇA DE CORIOLIS
    O VENTO GEOSTRÓFICO
    PROBLEMA
    O VENTO GRADIENTE
    PROBLEMA
    VENTOS NA CAMADA DE ATRITO (PRÓXIMO À SUPERFÍCIE)
    COMO OS VENTOS GERAM MOVIMENTO VERTICAL
    MEDIDAS DO VENTO

    8) CIRCULAÇÃO GLOBAL

    CIRCULAÇÃO GLOBAL IDEALIZADA
    DISTRIBUIÇÕES OBSERVADAS DE VENTO E PRESSÃO NA SUPERFÍCIE
    OS VENTOS DE OESTE
    POR QUE DE OESTE?
    CORRENTES DE JATO
    ONDAS NOS VENTOS DE OESTE

    (c) Departamento Fisica - Universidade Federal do Paraná
     
  6. Zoelae

    Zoelae
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    Nimbostratus

    Registo:
    11 Nov 2005
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    702
    Local:
    Vinhais (775m),Bragança/Porto
    Meteorologia - Livros e Manuais

    O Instituto Geofísico disponibiliza on-line vários livros, teses e outros documentos sobre Meteorologia e Geofísica

    Consultem: http://www.igidl.ul.pt/download.htm
     
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  7. Vince

    Vince
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    Furacão

    Registo:
    23 Jan 2007
    Mensagens:
    10,624
    Local:
    Braga
  8. Vince

    Vince
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    Furacão

    Registo:
    23 Jan 2007
    Mensagens:
    10,624
    Local:
    Braga
    Online Meteorology Guide

    The Online Meteorology Guide is a collection of web-based instructional modules that use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web. These resources incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio and video to introduce fundamental concepts in the atmospheric sciences. Selected pages link to (or will soon link to) relevant classroom activities and current weather products to reinforce topics discussed in the modules and allow the user to apply what has been learned to real-time weather data. Available modules include:

    Light and Optics
    The interaction between light and atmospheric particles and the colorful optical effects that result.

    Clouds and Precipitation

    Cloud classifications and the processes by which clouds and precipitation develop.

    Forces and Winds
    Forces that influence the flow of air and how they interact to produce wind.

    Air Masses and Fronts
    The most common types of air masses and fronts, plus a look at the different types of advection.

    Weather Forecasting
    General forecasting methods, important surface features, plus forecasting tips for different scenarios.

    Severe Storms
    The online version of NOAA's Severe Storm Spotters Guide. Investigates the different types of thunderstorms, their associated components, plus an in depth look at tornadoes.

    Hurricanes
    The anatomy of hurricanes, how they develop and why they are so dangerous.

    El Niño
    Why El Niño develops and the global impact it has on weather patterns and economics.

    Hydrologic Cycle
    The circulation and conservation of the earth's water.



    Link:
    http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/home.rxml
     
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    Meteorologia e Columbofilia - Escola de Meteorologia

    * Atmosfera
    * Calor e Temperatura
    * Pressão Atmosférica
    * Humidade do Ar
    * Nuvens e Precipitação
    * Vento
    * Visibilidade
    * Massas de Ar
    * Frontologia
    * Trovoadas
    * Relâmpagos
    * Tornados
    * Climatologia de Portugal
    * Ventos Locais
    * Imagens de Satélite
    * Radar Meteorológico
    * Descodificar o METAR
    * Tabela Sensação Térmica
    * Escala de Beaufort

    http://www.fpcolumbofilia.pt/meteo/main06.htm
     
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    SatManu - MANUAL OF SYNOPTIC SATELLITE METEOROLOGY

    BASICS
    In this part of the Manual you will find explanations of the different satellite channels and introductions to the method of combining satellite imagery and numerical model parameters. Furthermore, there is a detailed definition of "Conceptual Model".

    * Satellite channels
    o Basic Channels
    o Artificial and Combination Channels
    * Conceptual Models - Definition
    * Relation of cloud features and numerical model parameters

    o Numerical parameters for synoptic- to mesoscale cloud systems
    + The Quasi-geostrophic Approach
    + Divergence
    + Vertical Motion - Omega Equation
    + Temperature Advection
    + Vorticity
    + Vorticity Advection
    + Potential Vorticity
    + Thermal Front Parameter
    o Numerical parameters for small scale convective cloud systems
    + Convection and Instability
    + Cape
    + Stability Indices

    * Additional Tools
    o Vertical Cross Sections
    o Relative Streams
    * References to General Literature about Satellite Meteorology




    CONCEPTUAL MODELS
    In this part of the Manual, you will find a detailed description of about fifty conceptual models in different scales.

    * COLD FRONT

    o Arctic Cold Front
    o Cold Front
    o Cold Front in Cold Advection
    o Cold Front in Warm Advection
    o Split Front

    * WARM FRONT

    o Detached Warm Front
    o Warm Front Band
    o Warm Front Shield

    * OCCLUSION

    o Back-Bent Occlusion
    o Cold Air Development
    o Instant Occlusion
    o Occlusion: Cold Conveyor Belt Type
    o Occlusion: Warm Conveyor Belt Type

    * BAROCLINIC BOUNDARY

    o Baroclinic Boundary


    * SUBSTRUCTURES IN FRONTS AND INITIAL STAGES OF CYCLOGENESIS

    o Front Decay
    o Front Intensification by Jet Crossing
    o Rapid Cyclogenesis
    o Secondary Low Centres in Occlusion Cloud Bands
    o Upper Wave
    o Wave

    * NON-FRONTAL SYNOPTIC SCALE PHENOMENA

    o Deformation Band
    o Thickness Ridge Cloudiness
    o Upper Level Low
    o Warm Conveyor Belt

    * MESOSCALE PHENOMENA

    o Comma
    o Convergence Cloudiness
    o Enhanced Cumulus
    o Jet Fibres
    o Polar Low

    * CONVECTIVE WEATHER FEATURES

    o Cumulonimbus Cluster
    o Cumulonimbus (Cb) and Mesoscale Convective System (MCS)
    o CONVECTIVE CLOUD FEATURES IN TYPICAL SYNOPTIC ENVIRONMENTS

    + At the Leading Edge of Frontal Cloud Bands
    + Enhancement of Convection by PV
    + Fair Weather Conditions
    + The Warm Sector
    + The Warm Sector: Spanish Plume

    * OROGRAPHICAL WEATHER FEATURES

    o Barrage Cloud
    o Foehn
    o Orographic Effects on Frontal cloud
    o Lee Cloudiness

    * LOW CLOUDS

    o Cloud Streets
    o Fog and Stratus
    o Stratocumulus Sheets

    * WV STRUCTURES

    o Dark Stripes
    o Water Vapour Vortices

    * SMALL SCALE CONCEPTUAL MODELS

    o Coastal Convergence
    o Convergence Lines Over Seas and Lakes
    o Non-orographic Convergence Lines
    o Orographically Induced Convergence Lines
    o Sea-Breeze





    SHORT VERSIONS
    Here, all the conceptual models included in the Manual are summarized in a compact way. This is useful for quickly refreshing your knowledge.


    EXERCISES
    This part of the Manual contains exercises for each of the conceptual models. It can be used to test the knowledge you have gained in studying the Manual.


    CASE STUDIES
    In this part of the Manual, actual case studies show the applicability of the concept of "Conceptual Models".Most of the case studies have been developed for specific training courses in various parts of Europe.

    * Arctic Front
    o 29 - 30 January 1998

    * Baroclinic Boundary
    o 12 March 1996

    * Cold Front
    o 18 - 19 February 1996
    o 12 March 1996
    o 09 - 10 April 1996
    o 17 April 1996
    o 19 February 1997
    o 29 July 1997
    o 29 May 2000

    * Cold Front in Cold Advection
    o 09 - 10 April 1996
    o 02 - 03 August 1997
    o 15 - 16 March 1998

    * Cold Front in Warm Advection
    o 09 - 10 April 1996

    * Comma
    o 19 February 1997
    o 02 - 03 August 1997
    o 15 - 16 March 1998

    * Convergence Cloudiness
    o 29 July 1997
    o 29 May 2000

    * Cumulonimbus (Cb) and Mesoscale Convective System (MCS)
    o 07 June 1997
    o 29 July 1997
    o 24 - 25 August 1997
    o 12 - 13 November 1997
    o 11 June 1998
    o 14 - 15 June 1998



    CATASTROPHIC WEATHER EVENTS
    Here, well-known catastrophic weather events - like floods, storms or avalanches - are presented from the viewpoint of the "Conceptual Model" concept.

    * Back-Bent Occlusion
    o 06 - 13 August 2002 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe
    * Baroclinic Boundary
    o 06 - 13 August 2002 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe

    * Cold Front
    o 04 - 08 July 1997 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe
    o 05 - 25 February 1999 Avalanche Catastrophe Alpine Area
    * Cold Front in Cold Advection
    o 04 - 08 July 1997 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe
    * Comma
    o 05 - 25 February 1999 Avalanche Catastrophe Alpine Area
    * Cumulonimbus (Cb) and Mesoscale Convective System (MCS)
    o 06 - 13 August 2002 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe
    o 13 May 2003 Hail Catastrophe Vienna
    o 04 July 2003 Hail Catastrophe Croatia
    * Detached Warm Front
    o 05 - 25 February 1999 Avalanche Catastrophe Alpine Area
    * Enhanced Cumulus
    o 04 - 08 July 1997 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe
    * Front Intensification by Jet Crossing
    o 04 - 08 July 1997 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe
    * Lee Cloud
    o 05 - 25 February 1999 Avalanche Catastrophe Alpine Area
    * Occlusion
    o 04 - 08 July 1997 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe
    o 13 - 16 November 2001 Storm Catastrophe
    * Rapid Cyclogenesis
    o 25 - 28 December 1999 Storm Catastrophe Atlantic and W. Europe (France, Belgium, Germany)
    o 13 - 16 November 2001 Storm Catastrophe
    * Stau Cloud
    o 05 - 25 February 1999 Avalanche Catastrophe Alpine Area
    * Upper Level Low
    o 04 - 08 July 1997 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe
    o 06 - 13 August 2002 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe
    * Warm Conveyor Belt
    o 04 - 08 July 1997 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe
    * Warm Front
    o 05 - 25 February 1999 Avalanche Catastrophe Alpine Area
    * Water Vapour Dark Stripes
    o 13 - 16 November 2001 Storm Catastrophe
    o 06 - 13 August 2002 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe
    * Wave
    o 06 - 13 August 2002 Flood Catastrophe Central Europe




    Link:
    http://www.zamg.ac.at/docu/Manual/SatManu/main.htm
     
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    Tropical Cyclone Forecasters' Reference Guide

    E aqui vai mais um recurso, o manual mais completo que existe na Net sobre meteorologia e ciclogénese tropical e que é disponibilizado pelo NRL.


    Tropical Cyclone Forecasters' Reference Guide

    * Preface
    * Acknowledgements
    * Evaluation and Feedback
    * Chapter 1. Tropical Cyclone Warning Support
    * Chapter 2. Tropical Climatology
    * Chapter 3. Tropical Cyclone Formation
    * Chapter 4. Tropical Cyclone Motion
    * Chapter 5. Numerical Track Forecast Guidance
    * Chapter 6. Tropical Cyclone Intensity
    * Chapter 7. Tropical Cyclone Structure (under construction)
    * Tropical Cyclone Links and Web Sites




    Link:
    http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/~chu/tropcycl.htm
     
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    A influencia das situações anticiclónicas no regime da precipitação em portugal

    Um artigo que classifica e aborda as diversas situações sinópticas, circulação atmosférica, tipos de bloqueio (Omega, Difluente, Cut-off high, variação anual, etc.


    A INFLUENCIA DAS SITUAÇÕES ANTICICLÓNICAS NO REGIME DA PRECIPITAÇÃO EM PORTUGAL
    Catarina Ramos
    Finisterra, XXïl, 43, Lisboa, 1987

    Link: (PDF 34 páginas 1,6Mb)
    http://www.ceg.ul.pt/finisterra/numeros/1987-43/43_01.pdf





    Introdução
    Em Portugal, o Verão é a estação do ano em que os
    anticiclones são, claramente, mais frequentes, destacando-se
    destes o anticiclone Atlântico subtropical (As), o qual é nor-
    malmente encimado pela faixa das altas pressões subtropicais.
    Estas características da circulação atmosférica, à latitude de
    Portugal, conferem ao Verão o seu tom quente e seco. Assim
    sendo, a ausência das precipitações na estação estival é um
    facto perfeitamente normal no clima português.

    Contudo, no Inverno, a ausência das precipitações está
    longe de ser urna situação excepcional. A longa duração dos
    períodos anticiclónicos conduz a situações de seca que, nesta
    altura do ano, têm necessariamente consequências graves nos
    domínios ecológico e económico.

    Pelo interesse que nos despertou este tema, a orientação
    dada ao presente artigo procurou, numa primeira fase, definir
    a secura invernal, tendo em conta a análise estatística das
    precipitações, e, numa segunda fase, definir as situações anti-
    ciclónicas que ocorrem em Portugal e detectar de entre elas
    quais as responsáveis por períodos de seca invernal.
    Este artigo retoma e desenvolve algumas conclusões apre-
    sentadas em trabalho anterior (C. Ramos, 1985), em que se
    evidencia a influencia determinante das situações de abrigo
    aerológico no regime pluviométrico de Portugal Continental.

    A caracterização do regime pluviométrico foi feita, por
    anos climatológicos, para o período de 1950-51 a 1979-80 e
    teve por base as estações da rede sinóptica portuguesa, à
    excepção de Portalegre, em virtude de a sua série de valores
    näo ser homogénea


    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
     
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    Link: (PDF 1,3Mb)
    http://www.ceg.ul.pt/finisterra/numeros/1987-43/43_02.pdf
     

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